When diabetes is poorly controlled or left untreated, complications may occur. Some of the common major complications are as such because high blood glucose causes hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
- With this condition, the blood vessels in the retina become damaged and eventually this can affect vision. Retinopathy has various stages. In its early stages, there are usually no symptoms, so having a full diabetes eye check is essential to detect it early. Regular eye checks help detect any changes and allow for early treatment where needed to prevent further damage.
- Cardiovascular disease
- With higher blood glucose , higher tendency of arteries getting hardened(atheroclerosis).Different disease occurs when plaque is build up in different types of arteries. For example, heart attack occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Therefore,diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis).
- Neuropathy (Nerve damage)
- Excess sugar can damage walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. If left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation may occur if damage to the nerves related to digestion .
- Nephropathy (kidney damage)
- The kidneys has tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this filtering system. If damage is severe,it can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which often eventually requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.